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Collage

(technique, -present)

Introduction

A picture or design created by adhering such basically flat elements as newspaper, wallpaper, printed text and illustrations, photographs, cloth, string, etc., to a flat surface, when the result becomes three-dimensional, and might also be called a relief sculpture / construction / assemblage.

Hannah Hoch's Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife

Definition

Collage is an art production technique where the resulting piece is an assemblage of different forms or pieces to create a new whole. The term is derived from the French word ‘coller’, which means ‘to glue’. Literally speaking, creating a collage is putting things together to develop an artwork.

History

It was believed that the techniques of collage making started as early as 200 BC when China invented the paper. However, the actual evidence of this art form wasn’t seen until after the 10thcentury, when Japanese calligraphers glued paper on surfaces when writing the text for their poems. But strictly speaking, the formal use of collage as an art technique emerged only after the 1900s. Art historians associated its popularity to coincide with the early stages of modernism. 1

Kurt Schwitters' Das Undbild

As An Art Style

The collage technique in painting was first observed among Cubist painters Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Picasso used this technique on his oil paintings while Braque applied it to his charcoal drawings. Braque cut out pieces of paper and attached them to his drawings. Picasso, on the other hand, glued a patch of oilcloth with a chair cane design onto his canvas. He called it the ‘Still Life with Chair Caning’.2 Braque, on the other hand, called his the ‘Fruitdish and Glass’. Since then, many surrealist artists followed suit and made an extensive use of this art technique in several of their works.

Aside from canvases, this technique can also be applied on wood, as what Kurt Schwitters has done in his 1920 artwork entitled ‘Merz Picture with Candle’. Soon, there became many other types and variations of collage developed, one of which is the Decoupage. It is a special type of technique described as the craft of placing a picture onto an object for decoration. Henri Matisse applied it to his 1952 painting ‘Blue Nude II’.

Then there is also the photomontage technique, where the resulting artwork is made out of photographs or parts of it. A good example of this is Richard Hamilton and John McHale’s 1956 artwork which they called ‘Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing?’ This piece is also considered as one of the earliest works of Pop Art.

Pablo Picasso's Head Tete

Famous Examples

Another famous work of Pablo Picasso that uses the collage technique is called the ‘Head (Tete)’. Here, he cut and pasted colored paper, charcoal,and gouache on paperboard. The piece is currently displayed at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in Edinburgh.

Other notable examples are Kurt Schwitters’ ‘Das Undbild’ (1919); Hannah Hoch’s ‘Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife’, also created in 1919 and is now displayed at Berlin’s Staatlich Museum; and ‘The Sunblind’ (1914) by Juan Gris which is displayed at the Tate Gallery.

Famous Artists

The other famous artists whose has been a strong user of the collage technique are Cecil Touchon, Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton, Henri Matisse, and Jane Frank, among others.

References

1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collage

2 http://arthistory.about.com/od/glossary_c/a/c_collage.htm

Collage Artists

Henderson Nigel
April 23, 2009 / By The Artists
Haris Epaminonda
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Fabien Verschaere
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Ottone Rosai
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Robert Motherwell
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Nicole Wermers
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Marian Bijlenga
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Christian Jendreiko
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Joseph Cornell
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Jonathan Hernandez
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Stephen Willats
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Everlyn Nicodemus
March 13, 2012 / By The Artists
Vidigal Ana
April 20, 2009 / By The Artists
John O’Reilly
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Josephine Meckseper
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Joe Tilson
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Frances Stark
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Dr Lakra
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Thijs Rinsema
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Carol Bove
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Jorge Macchi
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Robert Michel
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Valery Koshlyakov
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Kristen Morgin
March 3, 2012 / By The Artists
Gonkar Gyatso
April 4, 2009 / By The Artists
David Mach
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Zak Smith
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Istvan Horkay
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Johannes Theodor Baargeld
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Godfried Donkor
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Georges Hugnet
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Trenton Doyle Hancock
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Gabriel Kuri
May 19, 2011 / By The Artists
Alberto Magnelli
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Steven Shearer
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Vincenzo Agnetti
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Jimmy Robert
March 13, 2009 / By The Artists
Matthijs Warner
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Giuseppe Chiari
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Lajos Kassak
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Tadeusz Kantor
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Shannon Bool
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Robert Rehfeldt
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Squeak Carnwath
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Mithu Sen
January 26, 2011 / By The Artists
Wolf Vostell
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Douglas Kolk
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Woody van Amen
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Antoni Clave
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Conrad Marca-Relli
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
David Thorpe
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Thomas Locher
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Chitra Ramanathan
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Markus Amm
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Gregory Gillespie
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Eugenio Dittborn
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Raha Raissnia
January 20, 2011 / By The Artists
Patrick van Caeckenbergh
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Josh Smith
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
William Tucker
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Radcliffe Bailey
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Giulio Paolini
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Stephen Antonakos
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Jiri Kolar
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Josua Reichert
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Romare Bearden
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Marcel Alocco
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Fabrice Hybert
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Ransome Stanley
May 10, 2010 / By The Artists
Robert Rauschenberg
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Elliot Hundley
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Astrid Klein
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Mimmo Rotella
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Grete Stern
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Klaus Staeck
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Ray Johnson
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Mary Beth Edelson
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
John Covert
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Michael Buthe
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Alexander Rodchenko
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
David Noonan
April 6, 2010 / By The Artists
Wangechi Mutu
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Felice Levini
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Laura Nolan
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Meredyth Sparks
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Guillermo Kuitca
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
David Wojnarowicz
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Andre Breton
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Jonathan Parsons
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Karel Teige
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Paul Citroen
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Hannah Hoch
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Nancy Rubins
February 4, 2010 / By The Artists
Dash Snow
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Xue Song
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Willie Bester
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Leon Ferrari
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Arturo Herrera
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists
Luuk Wilmering
December 28, 2008 / By The Artists

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